Month: August 2023

Golf Ball Dimples and Their Role – The Science Behind

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Golf is a sport of precision and finesse. It is deeply intertwined with the science of aerodynamics. At the heart of this scientific synergy lies the unassuming yet critical feature: golf ball dimples. They are small, seemingly innocuous indentations that adorn the surface of every ball. We will dive into the science behind golf ball dimples and their role on the ball itself.

They are not just decorative patterns but rather the result of meticulous engineering aimed at unlocking the secrets of flight dynamics.

Dimples harness the principles of aerodynamics, fluid dynamics, and the Magnus effect. That way they elevate the game of golf to new heights, quite literally.

Their primary purpose is to allow the ball to achieve greater distance and more stable flight paths. The specific pattern, size, and depth of the dimples can vary between manufacturers and models.

Now, without any further introduction, let’s break down how golf ball dimples work.

Image by Courtney Cook on Unsplash
Image by Courtney Cook on Unsplash

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

When a golf ball is in flight, it moves through the air. As does, it creates a layer called a boundary layer. That layer clings to the surface of the ball due to viscosity (the stickiness of fluids). Additionally, the boundary layer can become turbulent, which leads to increased drag. Drag is the force that opposes the motion of the ball through the air and can slow it down.

Dimples disrupt the smooth flow of air over the ball’s surface. Consequently, by doing that they are effectively tripping the boundary layer from laminar (smooth) to turbulent flow. This turbulent boundary layer “sticks” to the surface better, reducing overall drag. That phenomenon is known as the “dimpled golf ball effect.”

Magnus Effect and Lift

When a golf ball is struck with backspin or topspin, it begins to rotate around its axis. This spin creates differences in air pressure on different sides of the ball. According to Bernoulli’s principle, faster-moving air has lower pressure. The side of the ball with backspin moves against airflow. On the other hand, the side with topspin moves with airflow.

This creates a pressure differential, causing the ball to experience lift. The ball’s topspin side has lower pressure. That allows the higher-pressure air on the backspin side to push the ball upward. This lift force counteracts the force of gravity. With that, it enables the ball to stay in the air longer and achieve greater distances.

The dimples play a key role in the Magnus effect. They help maintain a thin layer of turbulent air around the ball. Hence they allow the pressure differences to develop more effectively. The backspin side experiences less drag due to the dimples’ turbulent boundary layer. Therefore, it allows the lift force to be more pronounced.

Golf Balls by
Golf Balls by

Stability and Control

Dimples contribute to the stability and control of the ball’s flight in the following ways:

  • First, the dimples help distribute the flow of air more evenly across the ball’s surface. This minimizes the impact of small imperfections and inconsistencies on the ball’s trajectory. As a result, it leads to a more consistent flight.

  • Second, the turbulent boundary layer created by dimples adds a layer of stability. This prevents the ball from experiencing sudden shifts in its flight path due to changes in airflow.

Preventing “Knuckling”

Without dimples, a smooth ball would experience turbulent flow at a lower speed. That would cause it to “knuckle” or wobble unpredictably in the air. Dimples help delay this turbulent flow, allowing the ball to maintain a stable flight even at higher speeds.

Penetrating Flight

Dimples help the ball achieve a more penetrating flight trajectory. This trajectory is often desirable because it cuts through the air more efficiently. Furthermore, it reduces the effects of crosswinds and other external factors that can divert the ball off course.

Golf Balls by
Golf Balls by

Types of Golf Ball Dimples

Golf ball dimples come in various shapes, sizes, and patterns. Each of those is designed to optimize aerodynamic performance, flight characteristics, and overall ball behavior. Different manufacturers may use their own proprietary designs, but there are a few common types:

1. Traditional Spherical Dimples

These are the most common dimples found on golf balls. They are circular and arranged in a pattern across the ball’s surface. This pattern is often hexagonal or pentagonal, similar to a soccer ball. These dimples provide a good balance between lift, drag reduction, and stability.

2. U-Shaped Dimples

Some golf balls feature dimples with a U-shaped profile. These dimples have a curved bottom and straight sides. That resembles a rounded “U”. Nonetheless, the design aims to enhance lift and distance by promoting better airflow around the dimple edges.

3. Dual-Dimple Technology

This design includes two different sizes of dimples on the ball’s surface. Larger dimples around the ball’s equator enhance lift, while smaller dimples near the poles reduce drag. Thus, this combination optimizes the ball’s flight trajectory.

4. Dimple Depth Variability

Some golf balls have varying depths of dimples across the surface. Deeper dimples might be placed in specific areas to modify spin rates or trajectories. Consequently, they offer more control to skilled players.

5. Non-Uniform Dimple Patterns

Certain golf balls have irregular or non-uniform dimple patterns. These patterns are strategically designed to manipulate the ball’s flight characteristics. That primarily refers to trajectory, spin, and stability.

6. Seamless Dimples

Instead of discrete dimples, some golf balls have a textured surface with a continuous pattern. It often resembles the traditional dimple arrangement. In brief, this design aims to reduce drag and provide a unique aerodynamic effect.

7. Micro-Dimples

They are very shallow, tiny dimples that cover the surface of the ball in addition to the main dimples. Micro-dimples help improve airflow over the ball and can contribute to lower drag.

8. Aerodynamic Dimple Designs

Finally, manufacturers might experiment with various dimple designs. For example, designs such as scallops, fins, or even more complex patterns inspired by nature. These designs can influence how the ball interacts with the air. In addition, that might lead to specific flight characteristics.

As Long As It Works for You

When you swing your clubs, you unknowingly engage in a dance with physics. At those moments, the dimples on your golf ball become partners in this intricate choreography. The science behind golf ball dimples is a testament to human ingenuity. It blends artistry and aerodynamics to elevate the sport to new levels of performance and enjoyment.

On one hand, the dimples reduce drag and enhance lift. Simultaneously, they stabilize flight and shape trajectory. While doing all that, they leave an indelible mark on the skies above golf courses worldwide. It is something worth appreciating each time when you hit the golf ball.

Finally, it does not matter what kind of dimples your golf ball has. What matters is that that golf ball does what you want it to. If not every time, at least most of the time.

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Mental Game Strategies for New Golfers – How to Play Better

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For you, as a new golfer, developing effective mental game strategies is crucial for a few reasons. It is not only about improving your performance but also enjoying the game more. There are several mental game strategies for new golfers worth exploring in order to help enhance your mental game.

Mastering the mental aspects of golf is as crucial as honing your physical skills. The mental game can often make a difference between a good time on the course and feeling frustrated.

Golf is a sport that challenges not only your physical abilities but also your mental resilience, focus, and attitude. This is where the art of the mental game comes into play.

As a novice golfer, it is easy to underestimate the influence of your mindset on your performance. However, seasoned players and professionals understand certain things. They understand that the thoughts, emotions, and strategies you bring to the course can significantly impact your outcomes.

Image by Andrew Anderson on Unsplash
Image by Andrew Anderson on Unsplash

The mental game is the inner realm where composure, concentration, and confidence intersect. It is about cultivating the mental tools to overcome the challenges that arise during a round. Additionally, it is also about managing pressure-packed moments, and staying positive even when things don’t go as planned.

In the following guide, we delve into a set of effective strategies tailored specifically for new golfers. These strategies are designed to empower you to take charge of your mental game. They allow you to navigate the complexities of the course with a sense of purpose and poise. Let’s check them out.

Stay Patient and Manage Expectations

Golf is a challenging sport that takes time to master. As a new golfer, you should set realistic expectations and be patient with yourself as you learn and improve. Understand that progress will come gradually, and setbacks are part of the learning process. Set achievable goals for improvement and celebrate small successes along the way.

Focus on Process, Not Outcome

Instead of fixating on the final score, focus on executing each shot to the best of your ability. Concentrate on your pre-shot routine, alignment, grip, and swing mechanics. When you aim for a consistent process it often leads to better outcomes.

Develop a Pre-Shot Routine

Establish a consistent pre-shot routine that includes visualizing the shot and choosing a target. On top of that, you can add setting up your alignment and stance, taking a practice swing, and then executing the shot. A reliable routine can help calm nerves and ensure consistency in your approach.

Practice Visualization

Visualizing successful shots can improve your confidence and concentration. Before each shot, close your eyes and imagine the shot you want to execute. Imagine the ball’s trajectory, flight path, and landing spot. Do that each time until it becomes a habit.

Practice Mindfulness and Focus

Stay present in the moment and focus on the current shot. Avoid thinking about past mistakes or future shots. Mindfulness techniques, such as deep breathing and staying aware of your senses, can help keep you in the present. Feel the breeze, hear the sounds around you, and focus on the feel of the club and the ball.

Control Negative Self-Talk

Replace negative self-talk with positive affirmations. Instead of swelling on mistakes or potential failures, remind yourself of past successes and focus on your strengths. Positive self-talk can boost your confidence and attitude.

Image by Markus Spiske on Unsplash
Image by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

Embrace Mistakes

Mistakes are a natural part of golf. Rather than getting frustrated, use mistakes as learning opportunities. Analyze what went wrong, make adjustments, and move on. This growth mindset helps you improve and reduces frustration.

Maintain a Positive Attitude

Approach each round with a positive attitude. Embrace challenges and setbacks as opportunities to grow and learn. A positive mindset can enhance your enjoyment of the game and lead to better performance.

Set Short-Term Goals

Break down your overall game improvement into smaller, achievable goals. Focus on improving specific aspects of your game, such as driving accuracy or putting proficiency. Accomplishing these mini-goals can provide a sense of accomplishment and motivation.

Stay Relaxed Under Pressure

Nervousness and pressure are common on the golf course, especially in competitive situations. Develop relaxation techniques like deeper breathing or positive visualization to stay composed and focused.

Stay Physically Fit

Regular exercise and flexibility training contribute to your mental game. Consequently, physical fitness supports endurance, balance, and overall well-being. All that is essential for maintaining focus and concentration throughout your rounds.

Learn from Mentally Strong Golfers

Observe how professional golfers handle challenges and pressure. Watch their pre-shot routine and note how they manage their emotions. Also, you can listen to their insights on mental strategies through their interviews. You can apply these techniques to your own game.

Image by Cristina Anne Costello on Unsplash
Image by Cristina Anne Costello on Unsplash

Apply Some Strategies and See the Changes

In conclusion, developing a strong mental game is a journey. It complements the technical aspects of golf. Hence, by integrating these strategies into your approach, you can cultivate resilience, focus, and a positive attitude. All that will serve you well on the course. Remember that progress takes time, and setbacks are part of the learning curve.

Embrace the process of improvement, stay present in each shot, and celebrate your achievements along the way. As you continue to refine your mental game, you will find that not only does your performance flourish. Your overall experience of golf becomes one of enjoyment, growth, and personal satisfaction.

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Categories: Beginners Gameplay

Golf Ball Compression and Swing Speed – How They Relate

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When it comes to golf topics, this one falls into the open-to-interpretation category. I say that because I have heard and read different thoughts about it over time. Some experts have one theory, while others have a different one. Nonetheless, there is definitely a relationship between golf ball compression and swing speed to look into.

The fact is that golfers use golf balls with different compression ratings and swing the clubs at different speeds. Those things will never change going into the future.

Going back to the diverse theories about compression and swing speed, there are two main ones. The first tells us that there is a certain compression rating class for each swing speed class.

That means if you swing your club slower, you should go for low-compression golf balls. In the same way, if you swing faster, you should go for higher-compression golf balls.

Image by Virgile Donadieu on Unsplash
Image by Virgile Donadieu on Unsplash

The second, on the other hand, tells us that to play your best golf you do not have to follow the rules from the first one. In fact, some experts say you could be fitted in different ball compression classes from your swing speed class. For example, you could still be fitted for a higher compression golf ball even if you are in the slow or middle swing speed category.

In this article, I will not support any of the two theories, but I will explain what the golf ball compression rating and swing speed are. I will also talk about how it is all designed to work together and leave you to decide what you make of it at the end.

Golf Ball Compression Rating

Golf ball compression refers to the measurement of the hardness or firmness of a golf ball. That critical characteristic affects the ball’s performance and feel when struck by a golfer’s club. It basically means, that when a golf ball is struck, it undergoes deformation, compressing against the clubface before rebounding off it.

The compression intensity directly influences how the energy is transferred from the club to the ball during impact. Balls with different compression levels behave differently based on a golfer’s swing speed and other factors. The golf ball compression is measured between 0 and 200.

However, most standard balls are rated between 50 and 100, with a few models from different brands with compressions under 50. The lower the compression rating, the softer the ball, and the higher the compression rating, the firmer the ball.

Swing Speed

Now, when we talk about swing speed, we usually talk about two different things. There is the golf club swing speed which refers to the velocity at which a golfer’s golf clubhead moves during the golf swing. In some parts of the world is measured in miles per hour (mph), while in others in kilometers per hour (km/h).

The golf club swing speed, more precisely driver swing speed, is typically used as a reference for choosing the golf ball. It is also valuable for club fitting, choosing the right shaft flex, and optimizing the equipment for maximum performance. Professional golfers usually have swing speeds between 110 and 130 mph, while amateurs mostly range from 80 to 100 mph.

There is also golf ball speed. It refers to the speed at which the golf ball leaves the clubface after impact with the golf club. The clubhead speed, the quality of contact with the ball, and the characteristics of the ball itself directly influence its speed.

Image by Samantha Gades on Unsplash
Image by Samantha Gades on Unsplash

Low-Compression Golf Balls

It includes golf balls with compression ratings around 50 (or lower) to 70. They are primarily designed for slower swing speeds (typically below 85 mph). These balls help maximize distance for golfers who do not generate a lot of power in their swings. They tend to feel softer and are more forgiving.

Mid-Compression Golf Balls

These are balls with compression ratings between 70 and 90. They are suitable for a wide range of golfers with moderate swing speeds (around 85 to 100 mph). These balls offer a balance of distance and control. Unlike the low compression rating category which only consists of two-piece golf balls, here we can find two-piece and three-piece (also a few four or five-piece) balls.

Image by Angelina Yan on Unsplash
Image by Angelina Yan on Unsplash

High-Compression Golf Balls

Here we can find balls with compression ratings above 90. They are designed for higher swing speeds (above 100 mph) and provide more control and accuracy for golfers with faster swings. This is the category where we can find the fewest ball models out there.

How It All Relates

Golf ball compression is important, but is just one factor that influences golf ball performance. The construction and design of the ball’s core, cover, and dimple pattern also play crucial roles in how the ball behaves and performs. For this reason, golfers often experiment with different golf ball models to find the one that suits their game and swing characteristics the best.

The bottom line is that every golfer’s swing and style are unique. You can definitely go for a golf ball fitting and be fitted with a golf ball you least expected. At the end of the day what matters is the things you are looking for in a ball. You might want only distance, or you are more focused on short-game performance. Whatever it is, there is a golf ball out there for you.

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2023 Bridgestone e12 Contact Golf Ball Review

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After refreshing its premium golf balls lineup last year, Bridgestone did the same with the rest of them this year. Here we are talking about the well-known e6 and e12 Contact. They also introduced a new ball, the e9 Long Drive, which I will review soon. Nonetheless, this is the new 2023 Bridgestone e12 Contact golf ball review.

The e12 Contact has been around for a bit of time now, to be precise this is the fourth generation. That says this ball is here to stick around for the future as well.

It is described as the ultimate choice for golfers looking to improve their game. One of the reasons for that is the FLEXATIV Cover Technology and Contact Force Dimple.

Those two combined create 46% more surface contact, resulting in more efficient energy transfer and longer, straighter distances with the driver.

2023 Bridgestone e12 Contact Box by
2023 Bridgestone e12 Contact Box by

Also, according to Bridgestone’s website, with increased friction, the spin and control around the green are better. Based on all of the above, there are reasons to be excited about this ball. I can see it being a game improvement ball since it has a three-layer construction, but it does not fall into the premium ball category. Now let’s see how the ball performed.

Who Is This Ball For?

The new Bridgestone e12 Contact came out with the new Flexativ technology which should improve the ball performance compared to the previous version. That improvement translates into better contact, longer distance, straighter trajectory, and more greenside spin. It remains in the lower compression ball category.

Based on all of the above, this ball should suit golfers with slow to moderate swing speeds. I do agree with Bridgestone that it is a ball for players who are improving. However, more advanced golfers might want a bit more out of a golf ball. It might go far on tee shots, but it still lacks spin with irons and wedges compared to premium balls.

If you are in a stage of your game where you want to move away from two-layered balls, this one could be an option. It is a good transitional choice for a fair price. In case you just want a ball that goes far off the tee, it is again a solid choice. Bridgestone has been working hard on this model, it is worth trying it out.


  • Distance
  • Multiple Color Options
  • Price
  • Soft Feel


  • Less Approach and Greenside Spin
  • Not Suited for Fast Swing Speeds

Bridgestone e12 Contact Review

Review by

Distance Control
Chipping and Pitching

On the Green

To put it in simple words, this ball performed very well on the green. Let’s start with the feel. Every time I stroke it with my putter, it felt soft. It was making a pleasant sound that was on the mellow side. Now on to the putting itself. Overall, I had no issues with adjusting to this ball. Right from the start I found the right pace.

I was especially pleased with the longer putts. When I needed the ball to hold the line and hit it stronger, it did that with no problem. This was the case with uphill putts, both long and short. Putts that had a bit of break in them worked decently with no particular hiccups. It was all good in this area of the game.

Around the Green

Like putting, this ball felt soft and nice around the green. I am a primarily bump-and-run type of chips golfer. Therefore, for me, it is important how the ball performs in this area. It performed well enough with a couple of chips that did not end up as planned. I could see the lack of spin compared to premium balls, but that was not a big deal.

I have chipped more times than usual this round, so I had more chances to see how the ball did. That means there were one or two higher trajectory chips which are not my strong suit. Nonetheless, it did not end too badly. On the contrary, it baled me out on multiple occasions saving the round from a tragic score.

Approach Shots

Since I test golf balls on a par 3 course, each shot is an approach shot. First, I have to say the ball went straight on every shot. What I mean by that is even if it went right or left it still went straight. I did not notice any excessive fading or drawing. The ball simply held its line no matter which direction it went.

I didn’t try shot shaping, but this time it did not happen even by accident. In general, the mis-hits were manageable. When it comes to stopping power, again, it is not as great as premium balls. That being said, it was still decent. I had no problem with changing flight height when needed which is always a plus.

It is worth mentioning that the feeling when hitting it was soft. That does not come as a surprise due to the lower compression. All in all, it performed well from the tee box.


This ball has shown decent durability. After a full round, there were only a few marks and a couple of scuffs showing on the ionomer cover. There are certainly balls that are more durable than this one, but also some that are less durable. This ball falls somewhere in the middle of the pack which makes it a solid choice.

Appearance and Price

The e12 Contact is a specific ball when it comes to appearance. It has a unique and different dimple pattern design which makes it stand out. This is not new, as the dimple design change came out with the previous model. There was a slight change with the alignment arrow, which now, in my opinion, looks modern and a bit nicer than the 2021 model.

Where the e12 Contact has a competitive advantage is the price. All its direct competitors except the Srixon Q-Star Tour come at a steeper price. For what you get performance-wise this ball is a great value for money. On top of that it is available in white, matte red, matte green, and matte yellow colors.

Final Verdict

To sum it up, this is a very good golf ball. It will certainly not give you a premium golf ball performance, but it is not even built to do that. This ball caters to the middle of the skill level golf audience. If you are looking to try something different that will not cost you big bucks, you might want to look into this one.

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